(1931) Cancer: The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigations infected human subjects with cancer cells. Dr. Cornelius Rhoads established the U.S. Army Biological Warfare facilities in Maryland, Utah, and Panama and began a series of radiation exposure experiments on patients in government and civilian hospitals.
(1932) Syphilis: In the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, two hundred black men diagnosed with syphilis were never told of their illness and were used as human guinea pigs in order to better understand the symptoms of the disease. None of the men received any kind of treatment, and only seventy-four survived.
(1935) Dietary deficiencies: Millions had died of pellagra, a dietary deficiency, in poverty-stricken black populations. The U.S. Public Health Service finally acted to curb the disease and admitted that it had known the causes of pellagra for more than two decades.
(1940) Malaria: In order to gauge the abilities of experimental drugs designed to fight malaria, four hundred prisoners in Chicago were infected with the disease.
(1942) Mustard gas: Four thousand servicemen, mostly Seventh-day Adventists who were conscientious objectors, served as human guinea pigs for mustard gas experiments.
(1947) Radioactive injections: The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission began administering intravenous doses of radioactive materials to human subjects.
(1947) Psychedelics: In its efforts to evaluate LSD as a potential weapon or truth serum, the Central Intelligence Agency administered dosages of the powerful hallucinogenic drug to human subjects, civilian and military, often without their knowledge or consent.
(1950) Radiation: With nuclear weapons still in their infancy, Department of Defense detonated nuclear devices in desert areas and then monitored unsuspecting civilians in cities downwind from the blasts for medical problems and mortality rates.
(1950) Bacteriological warfare: The U.S. Navy sprayed a cloud of bacteria over San Francisco to test how a large city would respond to more lethal biological attacks. Many residents became ill with pneumonia-like symptoms.
(1955) Biological agents: In an experiment to test its ability to infect human populations with biological agents, the Central Intelligence Agency released bacteria in the Tampa, Florida, area.
(1956) Yellow fever: Mosquitoes infected with yellow fever were released over Savannah, Georgia, and Avon Park, Florida. U.S. Army disease specialists, posing as public health officials, test area residents for effects.
(1965) Dioxin: Inmates at Holmesburg State Prison in Philadelphia were dosed with dioxin, the toxic chemical component of Agent Orange used in Vietnam.
(1966) Germ warfare: More than a million civilians were exposed to germ warfare when U.S. Army scientists dropped light bulbs filled with bacteria onto ventilation grates throughout the New York City subway system.
(1977) Contamination: Senate hearings revealed that between 1949 and 1969, 239 highly populated areas, including San Francisco, Washington, D.C., Key West, Panama City (Florida), Minneapolis, and St. Louis, had been contaminated with biological agents.
(1978) Hepatitis B: The Centers for Disease Control asked specifically for promiscuous homosexual males when it tested an experimental hepatitis B vaccine in New York, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Three years later, in those same cities, the first cases of AIDS were confirmed in homosexual men.
(1990) Measles: The Centers for Disease Control inoculated more than 1,500 six-month-old black and Hispanic babies in Los Angeles against measles. Later, the center confessed that the vaccine was experimental.
(1995) Biological agents: Evidence surfaced that the biological agents used during the Gulf War had been manufactured in Houston, Texas, and Boca Raton, Florida, and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections.